My research interests focus on the factors that influence the evolution of biodiversity. I primarily use phylogenetic comparative methods to investigate the causes and consequences of two types of diversity: species richness and the diversity of (e.g. behavioural) traits possessed by species. The traits I am most interested in are toxic weaponry of animals such as venoms and poisons. As part of my interest in the evolution of diversity, I also study convergent evolution - a phenomenon in which different lineages of organisms evolve similar traits. In particular I have an interest in methods for studying convergence. I maintain separate interests in applied and conceptual developments of animal husbandry and welfare. Finally, I have a particular penchant for reptiles (particularly snakes), amphibians, and a range of interesting (and often venomous) invertebrate groups, and try to focus my work on these groups wherever possible.