Employability Skills in the Commercial and Maritime Industry
This module provides LLM students with the key skills that are required to succeed in degree level study in the discipline of maritime and commercial law. This module provides practical guidance in written and oral communication skills necessary to succeed in the careers following the completion of the LLM. Students are introduced to the skills needed in applying for jobs and/or moving forward in a career path, including how to recognise and make the most of experience, learning, and knowledge and how to promote themselves effectively, including ways of qualifying as a practicing lawyer in England & Wales. The module is supported by outside speakers who share their expertise with our LLM students, give them an insight of their commercial and maritime practice.
Chinese Legal History
This course is one of the core courses for law majors in higher education. The content of this course includes the legislative activities of ancient dynasties, the administrative legal system, the criminal legal system, the civil legal system and the judicial system. Understanding the history of the development of China's legal system and the spirit of traditional law can help to deepen the understanding of the basic theory of law and provide the necessary historical knowledge for the study of other law courses. This course focuses on the overview of the legal system, the main legal ideas, the main legislation, and the judicial system in each period of Chinese history.
This module is one of the core law courses stipulated by the Ministry of Education. It is an important part of the law curriculum and required for students majoring in law. This course is the basis for students to study other related departments of public law. The teaching aim of this course requires students to master the knowledge related to national organizations and the basic rights of citizens. In terms of teaching content, this course focus on the explanations of the fundamentals and basic knowledge. In terms of cultivating practical ability, it focuses on the training of thinking and methods of using theory to analyse constitutional issues.
Civil Law I
Civil Law I is a compulsory course in law at the undergraduate level. It is one of the important sub-courses in Civil Law, which is one of the 16 core courses in law at institutions of higher learning. The main purpose of this course is to enable students to understand and master the basic principles of civil law, master the concept of it, clarify the subjects for adjusting it, understand the nature and characteristics of it, and familiarize themselves with the basic legal system of civil law. The course covers general issues of civil law, civil legal relations, civil subjects, objects of civil rights, legal acts and representation, limitation of action, etc.
Criminal Law I
General Theories of Criminal Law is one of the compulsory courses for law majors in colleges and universities, as determined by the Ministry of Education. Its content is divided into three parts: overview of criminal law, crime theories, and penalty theories. overview of criminal law is the general description of criminal law to introduce the contents in the connotation and extension of criminal law; the task of it, validity, and the basic principles of it. Crime theories mainly introduces crime and non-crime, criminal patterns, and conviction problems. Penalty theories mainly introduces the penal system and sentencing system including penalty power, principal punishment and additional punishment, sentencing and sentencing system, execution, penalty elimination, and so on. Prerequisite courses include Jurisprudence, Constitutional Law, and Chinese Legal History.
Administrative Law and Administrative Litigation Law
This course is one of the 16 key courses for law majors in national universities determined by the Legal Discipline Steering Committee of the Ministry of Education. It is also an important course for Maritime Law, International Economic law, and other law majors. In terms of teaching content, this course focuses on the explanation of basic theories, concepts, fundamental theories and other general theories of Administrative Law and Administrative Litigation Law, and attaches importance to the interpretation of relevant legal provisions, judicial interpretation and cases, so as to strengthen the thinking ability of law majors in administrative rule of law; and lay a certain foundation for the follow-up courses and the research and practice related to this major.
Civil Procedural Law
The Civil Procedure Law is a basic specialized course for the second grade of law majors, of which the preliminary courses are jurisprudence and civil law (General Principles of Civil Law, Property Law, Law of Obligation Contract). The follow-up courses for maritime law majors include law of evidence, maritime litigation and arbitration, and the follow-up courses for international economic law major include law of evidence, international commercial litigation and arbitration. The main content of the course includes: introduction, basic principles and systems of civil actions, jurisdiction and jurisdiction, parties to actions, agents ad litem, period and service of process, court mediation, property preservation and advance execution, compulsory measures against obstruction of civil actions, litigation costs, trial procedures, execution procedures, foreign-related civil actions, etc.
Criminal Law II
Specific Theories of Criminal Law is one of the main courses required for law majors in colleges and universities as determined by the Ministry of Education. It deepens discussions and learning on various charges based on the systematic completion of General Theory of Criminal Law. It mainly teaches the concept, establishment conditions, judicial recognition, and statutory punishment of various specific crimes in the specific provisions of the Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China. The contents include: the crime of violating citizens' personal rights and democratic rights, the crime of violating property, the crime of endangering public security, the crime of embezzlement and bribery, the crime of dereliction of duty, the crime of undermining the socialist market economic order, and the crime of sabotaging the social management order.
Civil Law (II) Property Law
The course of Property Law is one of the important professional basic courses of law major in colleges and universities. Through the learning of this course, the students will fully understand the basic concept and characteristics of real right and the nature of real right in the Property Law, as well as the basic principles of the Property Law. They will understand the content and connection of the General Provisions of the Property Law and ownership, usufructuary rights, security interest and possession, to allow the students to comprehensively apply the basic rules of the law and accurately understand and apply the Property Law. It will also lay a good foundation for the learning and practicing of this specialty in subsequent courses.
Criminal Procedural Law
This course is a basic professional course for undergraduates majoring in law. Criminal Procedure Law is an important part of China¿s legal system. As one of the three procedural laws, it is a departmental law that regulates criminal procedure. This course is the main course and one of the required professional courses for students in law majors. The purpose of this course is to help students master the basic knowledge and theory of criminal procedure law, and be familiar with the basic principles, systems, and procedures of criminal procedure. The course mainly focuses on cultivating students¿ ability to analyse and solve problems, laying a foundation for students to engage in judicial work or legal service work in the future.
Prerequisite Courses: Constitutional Law, Jurisprudence, Criminal Law
Civil Law III (Law of Obligations Contracts and Torts)
Law of Obligation Contract and Tort is a compulsory course in law at the undergraduate level. It is one of the important sub-courses in Civil Law, which is one of the 16 core courses in law at institutions of higher learning.
Through the study of this course Part I Contract Law, students can master the basic principles of Law of Obligation Contracts and the basic system of Contract Law, and have a certain understanding of the specific provisions of Contract Law. The course contents include the general principles of debt, unjustified enrichment, spontaneous agency, overview of contract and Contract Law, conclusion of contract, effectiveness of contract, performance of contract, preservation of creditor's rights, change of contract, termination and liability for breach of contract, sales contract and other famous contracts.
The aim of this course Part II Tort Law is to enable students to master the basic theory and knowledge of the subject and the basic rules of the tort liability law of our country. The aim is also to develop their ability to analyse and solve related legal problems by using the knowledge of Law of Obligation Torts, raise the students' awareness of using legal means to solve tort disputes, and to lay a professional foundation for law majors.
Chinese Maritime Law
Chinese Maritime Law is an elective course for students in all majors. It is a professional, technical and foreign-related course, which has been the first-class course in our university as well as an excellent course in universities in the Liaoning Province. The main purpose of this course is to enable students to understand the theoretical system, basic principles and the main content of every concrete legal system of the Maritime Law through study. In China, Maritime Law is a special law of civil law. The prerequisite courses of this course are the Introduction to Law, Civil Law, Contract Law, International Trade Law, etc. In addition, having studied relevant navigation courses and other practical courses will be helpful when studying this course. In the teaching process, heuristic teaching methods are mainly used. Meanwhile, students can master the basic skills of this course through case evaluation and classroom discussion.
Environment and Resources Law
Environment and Resources Law is an independent, borderline and interdisciplinary subject with specific content, which is formed by the mutual penetration and combination of Environmental Science and Law. This course is one of the 16 core courses for law majors in national universities determined by the Legal Discipline Steering Committee of the Ministry of Education. This course focuses on the basic theories of Science of Environment and Natural Resources Protection Law, the basic principles and systems of China's Environmental Law, environmental tort and environmental civil liability, and so on.
The prerequisite courses are Jurisprudence, Constitutional Law, General Civil Law, etc.
Commercial Law (Bankruptcy Law and Corporation Law, Insurance Law)
Commercial Law is one of the core courses in law as stipulated by the Ministry of Education and is also a compulsory course for law students, comprising two parts: Commercial Law I and Commercial Law II. The task of this course is to enable students to understand the special value of Commercial Law, the difference between Civil Law and Commercial Law, and the significance of the independence of Commercial Law. Students shall systematically master the basic theoretical knowledge and have a systematic understanding of the main components of Commercial Law, including the general theory of Commercial Law, commercial subjects, and the commercial legal systems such as Partnership Law, Corporation Law, and Bankruptcy Law, as well as their main principles, systems and rules. The course focuses on the teaching of basic principles and knowledge, and adopts a combination of case studies and simulation training to develop students' practical ability to analyse and address commercial-related legal problems, and to lay a good foundation for commercial law practice.
Labour and Social Security Law
This course is the core professional course for law majors in colleges and universities, and one of the major social sciences courses. It is a basic course for students of law majors and other social science majors to learn and master the basic theories and knowledge of Labour and Social Security Law, and apply what they learned to analyse and judge labour legal issues and solve labour disputes. This course is also the theoretical basis for students majoring in maritime law to study seafarer law in the future. This course emphasises the explanation of basic knowledge and theory in the teaching content, and the basic training of legal article understanding and case analysis skills in the training of practical ability.
Economic Law is an elective course for undergraduate students whose major is law in universities. It is an independent legal department in China's legal system and an important basic law. Economic law is a theoretical, comprehensive and practical subject. After the study of this course, students will have a deep understanding of the adjustment objects and principles of economic law, be able to fully grasp the basic contents of the economic legal system, and improve their ability to analyse and solve problems with the principles of economic law. It aims to improve students' comprehensive quality of law through the study of this subject. It contributes to the construction of economic law discipline and the popularization of modern law concepts. It also promotes the legislation, law-abiding and law enforcement of economic law to the direction of a country under the rule of law. Finally, it sets a solid foundation of knowledge for students to engage in economic and legal work in the future.
Private International Law
Private International Law is one of the core courses for law majors stipulated by the Ministry of Education, and is a critical part of international law and a compulsory course for law students. The course mainly cultivates students' ability to solve foreign-related legal disputes and legal problems, and enables students to understand and master various theoretical knowledge and practical skills for adjusting foreign-related civil and commercial legal relations.
Maritime Litigation Law and Practice
Maritime Litigation and Arbitration is a limited optional course for students of Law (Maritime Law). The main purpose of this course is to train students to establish the correct learning objectives and to cultivate a solid and serious scientific attitude. Through this course, students shall understand the basic concepts, rules and systems of maritime litigation and arbitration; master the basic content of China's Maritime Litigation Law and be able to put the rules and systems into practice in the judicial and shipping practice; master the basic content of China's Arbitration Law, understand the nature and role of arbitration rules, and master the basic content of the arbitration rules of the China Maritime Arbitration Commission; and master the differences and links between maritime litigation and maritime arbitration.
International Trade Law
International Trade Law is one of the main modules of law study in higher education, which integrates the basic theory of law and practical business knowledge, and is a compulsory course for undergraduate majors of Maritime Law and International Economic Law. This course focuses on the basic theoretical knowledge of International Trade Law and, at the same time, it introduces typical cases to guide students to interpret the cases correctly and master the ideas of case analysis.
Marine Insurance Law
The Marine Insurance Law is taught to undergraduate students majoring in Maritime Law. Marine insurance is the guarantee of all maritime risks and liabilities, and the main legal systems of Maritime Law all involve or are related to maritime risks and liabilities. Therefore, Marine Insurance Law is a crucial part of Maritime Law and thus a crucial specialized course of Maritime Law majors. Students of related majors with knowledge of Marine Insurance Law shall comprehensively and accurately understand the continuous responsibilities and risks in the international shipping business and the corresponding legal consequences, and know how to take effective measures and methods to avoid risks and responsibilities, acquiring the knowledge and ability to provide effective legal protection for the normal operation of organizations in their future career.
Property Law of Ships
The Property Law of Ships is one of the specialized courses of the Maritime Law Department of the Law School. The course focuses on the basic theories, systems, principles and systems of Property Law of ships. In terms of practical training, the course focuses on the application of the theory and the practice of the property law of ships, as well as the skills of solving the practical problems. The main contents of this course are the basic concepts and general theories of the property law of ships, ownership of ships, priority of ships, mortgage of ships, liens of ships and property rights of ships under construction.
Liner Shipping and Tram Shipping Law and Practice
This course is one of the limited specialized courses in the direction of Maritime Law for undergraduate students majoring in law. It is a professional course integrating practice and legal theory. Compared with other legal courses, it highlights the characteristics of shipping practice. The course is based on a comprehensive introduction to the operation mode of international shipping. The course systematically describes the operation characteristics and practical operations of traditional and modern liner transportation, including the functions, contents and circulation process of various liner shipping documents, as well as the main equipment and facilities of container transportation. Domestic legislation, international conventions and international practices related to maritime cargo transportation are also thoroughly explained, combined with typical cases focusing on the legal significance and function of transportation documents such as bill of lading, sea waybill and waybill. At the same time, the main contents of laws related to liner transportation market supervision are also introduced. Besides, the course also introduces the basic modes of charter transportation comprehensively and systematically. It teaches the main clauses of basic standard charter parties, such as voyage charter party, time charter party, bareboat charter party and bareboat charter purchase party, as well as mastering the process of establishing a charter party, and charter broker¿s concept and role. Understanding the international chartering market, the composition of voyage freight and cost estimation, relative laws, regulations and shipping practices. Acknowledging the relationship between charter party and bill of lading, especially the concept, function and validity of bill of landing incorporation clauses. It mainly involves voyage charter party, time charter party and bareboat lease transport.
Admiralty Law I and II
Admiralty Law is a specialized course for undergraduate students majoring in law (majoring in maritime law). The main purpose of this course is to cultivate students' awareness of maritime law, enable students to master the basic theories, knowledge and analytical methods of each constituent system of maritime law, and to understand new theories and new knowledge in the field of admiralty law. Meanwhile, the course aims to cultivate students' ability of theory and practice, improve students' ability of practical analysis of maritime cases, and lay a good theoretical and practical foundation for the work related to this major. It is also to cultivate students' awareness of some special Admiralty Law systems in Maritime Law, including collision, salvage, general average, limitation of liability for maritime claims and compensation for pollution damage by ships. Admiralty Law contents include collision, salvage, general average, limitation of liability for maritime claims and compensation for pollution damage by ships.
Charterparties: Law and Practice
This is a module designed to give an insight into both the legal and commercial relevance of charterparties. The lectures will consider the legal principles which are relevant in relation to charterparties generally and also in relation to specific types of charter and will consider how such principles are evolving in response to market pressures. The module will also look at the relationship between charterparties and the other common contracts relating to the use of a ship and the carriage of goods.
The Law of Marine Insurance
This module introduces the foundations and basic concepts of the law of marine property insurance, i.e. the insurance of ships, cargoes and freight. The law considered is predominantly English law, although it is of international relevance for two reasons. First, principles of English marine insurance law are to be found in many Commonwealth jurisdictions and is recognised as authority in the United States. Secondly, forms used in London Insurance market are to be found in 2/3 of the world¿s markets (according to the UNCTAD) and the US forms show marked similarities. English marine insurance law is based upon the Marine Insurance Act 1906 as modified by the Insurance Act 2015. Most provisions of the Act, however, are frequently subject to contrary agreement between the parties and the Act does not address the perils against which cover is provided. Accordingly, considerable emphasis is placed on the standard clauses of the International Underwriting Association of London where much of the substance of modern marine insurance contracts is to be found. Throughout the module, the respective positions, rights and duties of assureds and insurers are analysed, as also are the concepts of indemnity, subrogation and co-insurance.
Legal Reasoning and Jurisprudence 1
Introduces Dalian Maritime University (DMU) students to the skills needed to argue legal and factual matters, and builds upon the knowledge.
From looking at the binding authority of different courts, cases and doctrines, to breaking down the judge¿s decision, the students learn what a strong legal argument consists of by linguistically deconstructing it.
The remaining 50 per cent of the module is about using the knowledge obtained in the deconstruction to rebuild given facts of a case to create an argument. This skill will be developed throughout the rest of the students¿ academic and legal career, and is fundamental to the rest of the DMU courses where the skill of arguing in a strong and clear way is paramount.
Practice exam sessions and revision classes towards the end of the module will prepare students for the final assessment.
Legal Reasoning and Jurisprudence 2
This second Legal Reasoning module steps away from the theory and moves into a more practical framework and moves the learning objective away from `What the rules are¿ to `How can the rules be used¿.
Looks at case law (as the primary source of academic and professional research), explores which parts of a judgment can create precedent and bind other courts. Key cases are exemplified and worked through which allow the student to build upon the legalese and academic language used in Legal Reasoning 1.
Further, students break down the reason for the judge¿s decision (ratio decidendi) to see what points of law caused the judge to rule in that particular way, and whether any analogies can be useful (obiter dicta).
Practice exam sessions and revision classes towards the end of the course will prepare student for the final assessment of preparing a case brief for a partner at a law firm.
Academic English 1
Provides Dalian Maritime University (DMU) students with the academic English language skills that will lead to success for the study of law. It provides practical guidance on legal English that can be applied across the key academic skills areas of writing, reading, speaking and listening.
There focus will be on legal grammatical constructions and specialist legal vocabulary and terminology that will not only allow students to progress with a more thorough understanding of the law, but also allow students to explain and use the correct terms for future courses.
Practice exam sessions and revision classes towards the end of the course will prepare student for the final assessment.
Academic English 2
This second module builds on Academic English 1 by stepping from vocabulary focus, more towards grammar and clauses at a sentence level. It will span across all skills areas thereby developing writing, reading, speaking and listening proficiency.
The theme remains in the general field of company law, but there is a concerted effort in role-playing between client and lawyer in the spoken and written output which follow from the lecture and workshop input on the topic. The spoken and written work will reaffirm the vocabulary and grammar that the students have been learning for the duration of Academic English 1 and 2.
Practice exam sessions and revision classes towards the end of the course will prepare student for the final assessment.
English and Welsh Legal System
This module introduces students the English Legal System, including its fundamental concepts, its institutions and key procedures. In addition, the students are given a basic introduction to legal terminology, legal reasoning and legal methodology, which they will continue to practice and develop throughout the programme.
Legal English 1
Building upon the general Academic English from Year 1, the Legal English 1 module in Year 2 starts to use more sophisticated vocabulary coverage in sentences as well as developing the collocations of frequent legal words encountered in higher education, with a focus more in the field of contract law.
Classes will further deconstruct and rebuild legal judgements, allowing students to identify key components and grammatical and linguistic constructs that occur within this type of legal text. The written output will be to present a case note on a familiar and seminal contract case, as well as ongoing discussion classes to ensure students understand the legal concepts and use the correct terminology.
Legal English 2
Legal English 2 sees the content move away from legal English vocabulary and focus on its correct usage and grammatical form within oral and written sentences. Building upon the general vocabulary in Academic English 1 and contract law favoured in Legal English 1, this module starts to use the vocabulary coverage in sentences as well as developing the collocations of frequent legal words encountered in higher education and maritime law.
With the basic academic English and legal terminology now grasped, students will be developing this and start learning higher-level vocabulary and structures which will be practised through role plays, pair work, discussions and debates which are all common assessment methods in university and important career skills.
Law of Contract
The Law of Contract is at the heart of the system of obligations in law and forms, together with tort law. It provides the essential foundation for further subjects in the areas of commercial, consumer, company and maritime law as well as international trade. The matters covered within the law of contract include contract formation and contents, vitiating and avoidance factors, terms and performance of contract as well as remedies.
English and Welsh Law of Tort
The Law of tort is a branch of the civil law which provides possible remedies for the protection of a person¿s interests in relation to different forms of loss which may be experienced as a result of different types of incident. In deciding whether there is liability in tort, it may be vital to determine the degree to which one side or the other was to blame for what happened and it may matter whether the defendant caused the injury deliberately, negligently, or there may be liability even though the person who has caused the damage was not to blame at all. These are all issues which the students will address within the module.
Legal Writing 1
Legal Writing 1 is the first step students will take into writing in English for specific purposes, itself an academic discipline. The focus is preparation for writing an opinion essay, which is the end objective of this module and provides a good foundation for writing tasks at university.
Students learn how to structure an opinion essay, and how to use legal and persuasive authorities to support those opinions. Critical thought and questioning is encouraged, and the analytical skills previously learnt are challenged.
To obtain good quality research, students learn the skills involved in navigating a library for books, case law, legislation, journals and law reports. This information is then adapted to be used in an essay by demonstrating and teaching how to summarise and paraphrase while avoiding academic misconduct.
Finally, an essay question is broken down and the key elements extrapolated, and students can use their newly obtained skills to prepare a first draft opinion essay. Students are then taught how to proofread their work before submission.
Legal Writing 2
Legal Writing 2 brings together knowledge from the previous four English and Academic modules, and the research and writing skills from Legal Writing 1 to introduce this to what is seen as the most difficult writing genre in law ¿ the problem question.
The content solely addresses how to understand what the question is asking, how to address each part, learn the structure of a problem question and adapting research to answer each part, as well as reaffirming and consolidating the writing skills learnt in Legal Writing 1.
Law, Technology and Artificial Intelligence in Shipping
New technologies such as maritime autonomous systems are making the maritime sector cleaner, safer, more efficient. They are designed to improve human interaction with machines and ensure the shipping industry stays up to date with other sectors and developing markets. There are rapid developments in artificial intelligence that will have significant implications for both the professional legal industry and within the law itself.
Students will analyse some of the newer technologies which are influencing the maritime industry such as autonomous and partially autonomous vessels, smart ports and smart containers. Students will learn about Artificial Intelligence and the role it has in future legal shipping practice, including looking at case law and complex legal theory. Students will explore the concept and limitations of smart contracts, and analyse Artificial Intelligence from the perspective of potential liability while also studying new, innovative ways of payment, including blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies.
Legal Case Reading
Case law and judicial precedent operate under the principle of stare decisis, which means that for the law to function and develop, a judge must know what the previous decisions of courts are. Case reports, or ¿law reports¿, make this possible. This module seeks to introduce students to research methodologies and theoretical perspectives (such as doctrinal, comparative law, socio-legal, historical, content analysis, quantitative analysis, research ethics), with a particular focus on effective dissecting and interpreting case law.
Commercial and Maritime Mooting
A moot court simulates a court hearing (usually an appeal against a final decision), in which participants analyse a problem, research the relevant law, prepare written submissions, and present oral argument. Therefore, the aim of this module is for students to have a practical understanding of the legal challenges they will face in the maritime sector, they will be taught to engage and think deeply about the problems, build up their advocacy skills and legal research, as well as learn teamwork.
Dispute Resolution in Commercial and Maritime Law
International disputes that cannot be otherwise resolved are customarily referred to arbitration. As such, a global network of arbitration organisations and international institutions exist to address references to arbitration. The module examines the arbitration structures which exist to resolve international disputes in the context of commercial arbitration and the associated questions of private international law.
Applied Commercial Law
Contemporary concerns originating in market and business failures sufficiently indicate the vital importance of business law for accountability and performance. Taking account of the rapid developments in this field, this module offers students a unique opportunity to explore business law on a broad spectrum. It allows for an investigation into new and dynamic issues pertinent to the operation of businesses in the international context, including intellectual assets management, international payment and transactions, the governance of businesses and aspects of insolvency and personal responsibility. Designed to accommodate both legal and commercial perspectives, it allows students to obtain an understanding of cutting-edge developments in a number of discrete legal areas.
International Shipping Law
This module concerns a practical aspect of maritime law. The aim of the module is to provide students with a practical and critical knowledge of those aspects of maritime law relating to the running of the ship. The module is in two parts. Part one deals with substantive areas of maritime law such as the law of collisions, harbour law, pilotage, salvage, general average, carriage of passengers and limitation of liability. Part two focuses on enforcement of maritime claims through the practice and procedure of the Admiralty Court, including arrest, jurisdiction and maritime liens. Also, contemporary public law issues that have a bearing on ship operations, such as ship registration and port state control, are also considered in this module.
Public Maritime Law
The aim of the module is to provide thorough knowledge of the rules and framework of international legal affairs related to shipping and the public international framework that governs them. The module seeks to develop the student¿s ability to see the practical effects and make comparative analyses of different sets of regulations within the complex field of maritime law.
Employability in Commercial and Maritime Law
This module provides students with the key skills that are required to succeed in degree level study in the discipline of maritime and commercial law. This module provides practical guidance in written and oral communication skills necessary to succeed. Students are introduced to the skills needed in applying for jobs and/or moving forward in a career path, including how to recognise and make the most of experience, learning, and knowledge and how to promote themselves effectively.
Distributed Ledger Technology (Blockchain) and Commerce - Law and Regulation
Distributed ledger technology (DLT) is an integral part of the emerging digital transformation taking place within commercial and financial industries. It has the potential to dramatically alter the way businesses operate, providing improved efficiency of current client requirements and opening doors for new services.
In simple terms, DLT is a database that is distributed across several independent computing devices (nodes) where changes to data are protected and managed by cryptography and consensus ensuring that data cannot tampered with and that all parties have identical copies that can be considered as a reliable source of truth.
This module intends to analyse the legal position of those employing such ledgers in the context of their businesses. To appreciate the potential legal problems emerging, the applications of such ledgers in different areas of commercial law (finance, insurance, shipping) will be studied. The module will then discuss whether any change in private law rules is required to ensure that such ledgers do not create unexpected consequences for relevant parties. Regulators are also actively exploring the need to regulate the use of such ledgers. Regulation is rather challenging in this area due to potential jurisdictional problems, and overly strict regulation could potentially reduce the commercial values of such ledgers. These issues, along with others, will be discussed as part of this module.